ADHD stands for Attention deficit hyperactivity disorder. It is set apart by excessive activity, distraction, and impulsivity as it is a neurodevelopmental disorder, otherwise not pertinent for a person’s age. Some individuals with ADHD show difficulty regulating emotions or problems. Usually, its symptoms can be diagnosed when a person is twelve years old.

Problems such as paying attention, memory, and focus may result in schools and lead to poor performance in children. Other things such as substance misuse and mental disorders are associated with it. other features are the inability to concentrate,  not being able to complete tasks such as school work. The other name of attention deficit hyperactivity disorder are attention deficit and hyperkinetic disorder (ICD – 10).






Psychiatry, pediatrics




Usual onset


Before age 6 -12






Difficulty paying attention, excessive activity




Diagnostic method


After other possible causes Ruled out and based on symptoms







Atomoxetine, stimulants, guanfacine, clonidine






84.7 million (in 2019)


Cause of ADHD(1): – The symptomatic mechanisms of ADHD are generally understood on a purely mechanical level. It is the result of neurological dysfunction associated with the imbalance of dopamine in the brain and its production process. There are known causes of most ADHD cases. The involvement of interactions between genetics, social factors, and the environment is believed to be involved. Previous infection or trauma to the brain is related to certain cases.

Genetics: – According to twin studies these disorders are often inherited from the parents. About 75 % of cases in children, 35 % to potentially 75 % of cases in adults can be attributed to genetics. The siblings without the disorder are three to four times less likely to develop ADHD than those who have siblings with ADHD.

Genetic variation to be used as a tool for diagnosis and performance however, it needs more validating studies. To predict a person’s response to stimulant medication, the SNARE complex of the synapse can be reliably studied. Both common and rare levels of genetic variation show ASD overlap with ADHD. Hyperactive and impulsive traits in males are due to evolution that play a role in high rates of ADHD.

Social Factors: – The younger children in the class are more at risk of developing ADHD as compared to the ones who are older in age because they are developmentally still behind. Across a number of countries, this effect has been seen.  A dysfunctional family or a poor educational system may be a causative factor for the individual and might lead to the symptoms. 

Another cause can be higher educational expectations from a child in order to get scholarships and stuff. This puts a lot of stress on them. For children who have experienced violence and emotional abuse, typical behaviors of ADHD can more commonly occur.

Environment: – Some external factors also play a role in causing ADHD. The intake of alcohol in pregnancy can cause fetal alcohol spectrum disorder and ADHD.

Exposure to certain toxic substances such as polychlorinated biphenyls might result in a problem that resembles ADHD. For example, exposure to tobacco smoke during pregnancy might increase the risk of ADHD as it hinders CNS development.

ADHD sign and symptoms: – Disruptive behavior impulsivity, hyperactivity and inattention are the main signs and symptoms of ADHD. Problem with relationships, academic difficulties, inability to focus are other issues related to ADHD.

It’s hard to identify where to draw the line therefore symptoms can be difficult to define. This is especially common in children where impulsivity, hyperactivity, and inattention are already not uncommon.

Symptoms must be present for six months or more at a degree that is greater than others of the same age according to the fifth edition of the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM – 5). In order to receive a diagnosis of ADHD, there are criteria that have to be met prior to age 12. This may contain at least 6 symptoms of hyperactivity for those who are under 17 and 5 for those 17 years older.(2)

Sub types: – It is divided into three primary subtypes such as combined type (ADHD – C), predominantly hyperactive-impulsive (ADHD – HI), and predominantly inattentive (ADHD – PI).

Combined type: – This is the criteria for both inattentive and hyperactive-impulsive ADHD.

Inattentive type (ADHD – PI): – Most of the symptoms are defined as below.

  • Forget things, frequently switch from one activity to another, easily distracted and miss details.
  • Facing difficulty while focusing on one task.
  • They become bored after few minutes with a task.
  • Having difficulty on organizing to completing task.
  • Having trouble on turning in homework assignments.
  • When spoken to, they do not appear to be listening.
  • They become confused and move slowly while daydreaming.
  • Having problems understanding and overlook details.

Hyperactive Impulsive (ADHD – HI): – Here we define some symptoms of hyperactive impulsive.

  • Nonstop talking.
  • Wriggle a great deal.
  • Dash around everything in sight, touching or playing with anything.
  • Troubles in sitting still during school, dining, and while doing homework.
  • Constant movements.
  • Facing difficulties in performing tasks or activities.
  • They do not wait for their turn in games.

Treatment of ADHD: – If an individual is given an accurate diagnosis of ADHD,  it is necessary to receive treatment for their symptoms.

Normal treatment: – Many ADHD patients are prescribed medication to treat their symptoms. Many ADHD patients are prescribed stimulants such as Concerta, Adderall and Ritalin. For those who have the symptoms of ADHD these medicine are very beneficial. It may have serious side effects too for those who take them. It includes.

  • Tics or twitching.
  • Reduction of appetite.
  • Increasing heart rate.
  • Headaches
  • Stomach aches
  • Changing of personality.
  • Issues of sleeping.

Due to such reasons many people do not take medications. There are some other non – pharmacologic ways to manage symptoms that have less worries and you should be able to get more details from treatment providers.

Manage symptoms naturally: – To manage the symptoms of ADHD there is a variety of ways. Some option are given below.

  • Marital and Family treatment.
  • Behavioural therapy
  • Exercising
  • Management techniques for stress.
  • Meditation
  • Hygienic healthy sleep.