Diabetes: – It is a disease in which glucose level or sugar level increases to a high range in the blood. Insulin in the body helps to get this excess sugar into the cell to give energy to them. Insulin is basically a hormone released by special cells in the pancreas called Islets of Langerhan.

Type I: – In type I disease body is not able to make insulin on its own at all. In this situation, the pancreas is not able to release insulin from its special cells. Type 1 diabetes needs constant monitoring and medicines.

Type II: – In type II diabetes body is not able to produce ENOUGH insulin or use it well. It is also called adult – onset diabetes. It is the most common type of diabetes.

Type II causes(1): – In type II pancreases is able to release insulin when we eat food. As mentioned earlier, insulin helps in absorbing glucose in the cells. Insulin, in normal cases, helps in the glucose transport from blood to the specific cells. People with the middle age are most likely to get Type II diabetes. Patients with Type II diabetes are efficient enough to manage it because it is not very chronic. There are some causes of Type II disease which we should differently be aware of.

  • Genes
  • Bad communication with cell.
  • Secretion of glucose from liver.
  • Extra weight.
  • Poor diet.
  • Metabolic syndrome.
  • Broken beta cells.
  • Age factor.
  • Ethnicity

Overweight is one of the big causes of diabetes. If anyone puts on so much weight and carries extra pounds they have more chances to get Type II diabetes. Genetics is also main cause of Type II diabetes. Scientist found that DNA affects the insulin too much if patient’s family has diabetic history.

Age factor is also one of the big causes of Type II diabetes. People in the middle ages like 40 or more are more likely to get Type II diabetes. Broken beta cells are another cause of Type II diabetes. In this condition, cells make insulin in the wrong amounts or send it to263. the wrong location, this causes high sugar levels in the body and diabetes.

Bad communication between cells is another cause of Type II disease. If cells carry wrong signals and transmit wrongly to the other parts of body. Then it might result in Type II diabetes.

Patients that are suffering from extra fat, blood sugar, High blood pressure, High cholesterol, and triglyceride are also at an increased risk of getting diabetes. Too much glucose from the liver is another important cause. When the blood sugar level is low in the body, the liver starts making and sending glucose to the blood. After eating the meal, glucose levels increase in the body. People who live in Africa, America, Alaska Native, Native America and Pacific Islander America are more likely to get Diabetes. There are many other causes of diabetes that are given below.

  • PCOS (Polycystic ovary syndrome).
  • Sleeping too much or a little.
  • Depression
  • Having baby of more than 9 pounds.
  • Exercising
  • Obese
  • High blood pressure.
  • High triglyceride.
  • Low HDL.
  • Heart problem.
  • Smoking
  • Stress

Test for diabetes Type II: – If the symptoms are too much or the glucose level increases too much in the body doctor prefers or recommends some test usually for testing diabetes. Test should take two or three days only, examples are:

  • Fasting plasma glucose.
  • OGTT

Fasting plasma glucose test: In this test patient would not be able to eat or drink anything for eight hours. Sugar should be measured from the blood when stomach is empty. This is also known as the fasting sugar blood tests. OGTT  is known as an oral glucose tolerance test. It is tested when the patient eats something sweet to check low blood cell reaction.

Symptoms / Signs: – Symptoms and signs of diabetes are not very severe. Everyone can’t notice them because they are quite unnoticeable for example, the patient that is suffering from diabetes usually do a lot of pee, sometimes their vision is blurred, feels very thirsty all the time, if patients suffer from any wound it can’t be healed very soon, weight loss without any exercise, patient will feel hungry all the time, yeast infection that won’t get cured as well.

These are some of the signs and symptoms of diabetes. Ideally when a person feels one or more of these symptoms, he should talk to his doctor as soon as possible to avoid any complications.

Complication: – There are some complications that occur when you leave your diabetes uncontrolled.

  • Heart problems
  • Kidney problems
  • Vision problems
  • Skin issues
  • Sleep troubles
  • Hearing, brain, and mood problems

The diabetic patient in extreme neglect might suffer from heart disease, stress, stroke, angina, or atherosclerosis. These are the most harmful diseases suffered by the diabetic patients. Diabetes can cause trouble in digestion and in sexual response too. Women that are suffering from diabetes are more likely to have miscarriages, still birth or baby with low birth weight. Diabetic patients are more likely to get kidney failure and in that case, they will need to get their kidneys replaced or regular dialysis.

Treatment and medications: – Treatment of diabetes is the combination of lifestyle changes and medication.

  • Weight loss
  • Healthy eating
  • Exercising
  • Monitor blood sugar level regularly

Dropping weight like 5 to 7 pounds in case you’re a little over your normal BMI might help. Eating a healthy diet with more greens, fruits, and whole grains might also help. There is no specific diet plan for Type II diabetes. You just have to focus on eating fewer calories, more vegetables, fruits and juice etc. Exercis is another good thing for treating diabetes. Regular exercise for 20  to 30 minutes daily just to rate up the heart might help. Regular checkup on blood sugar will also help in treating sugar. These are some of the changes needed to manage diabetes.(2)

 In diabetes, medicines are also needed to maintain a healthy balance of blood sugar. These are the medicines to treat diabetes Type II.

  • Fortant.
  • Glucophage.
  • Glumetza.
  • Driomet.
  • Amryle.
  • Dia Beta.
  • Starlin.
  • Prandim.
  • Avandia.
  • Actos.
  • Fraxiga.
  • Lanlus.
  • Levemis.
  • Oxglyza.


  1. https://www.mayoclinic.org/diseases-conditions/diabetes/symptoms-causes/syc-20371444
  2. https://www.medicalnewstoday.com/articles/323627