MS is a disease in which the immune system of the body attacks its own tissues, the cause for MS is unknown. In MS immune system destroys the fatty substance found in brain and spinal cord. This fatty substance coats and protects nerve fiber of brain and myelin. In this case, myelin damage causes the blocking of messages. The reason for developing MS in people is not clear. It is the combination of many factors like genetics and environment. These are the causes that have an adverse effect on MS:

  • Age
  • Genetics
  • Infection
  • Race
  • Climate
  • Smoking
  • Vitamin D
  • Sex
  • Geography

People that are living in cold areas are more likely to get MS. As the research shows that the sunlight and vitamin D protect against MS. People who are living in colder areas are not able to get enough sunlight or vitamin D.

Tobacco smoking is also the cause of MS. Nonsmokers have fewer chances of developing MS in their bodies. Climatic extremes might also be the major cause of MS. This includes Canada, The Northern United State, New Zealand, and Southeastern, Australia, and Europe where temperatures and climate can reach extremes.

Genetics is also the cause of MS. If a person has a family history of MS he is more likely to get MS, for example, parents and siblings, etc. The race is also the cause like white people who live in Northern Europe are at a high risk of getting MS as compared to the people who live in Asia, Africa, or America. So race matters in the case of MS.

If someone has autoimmune disorders like thyroid disease, inflammatory bowel disease, pernicious anemia, and diabetes type 1 they are more likely to get MS. Sex is also the cause of MS, women are more likely to get MS than men.

Age factor is also the cause for MS. MS is a disease that can occur in any age but most commonly it occurs at the age of 23 – 40 years, however, younger or older people can also be affected by this. The basic quality of life with MS depends upon the symptoms and response of the patients. This is rarely chronic but it is unpredictable, it can also change courses without any warning.


The type for MS includes:

  • CIS
  • PRMS
  • PPMS
  • SPMS

CIS is known as chemically isolates syndrome, it is the pre-condition of MS. It is the condition in which only one episode of MS is exhibited but this episode is not very effective to diagnose the disease. These episodes of symptoms last for 24 hours. If there is more OCB found in spinal fluid, your doctor might be able to diagnose MS. But if there is no OCB fluid found in spinal fluid then there are fewer chances of receiving MS diagnosis.

RRMS is called relapsing-remitting MS (RRMS). This involves clear disease activity. In this episode symptoms are mild or absent, there’s no disease progression and this is the most common form of MS and found in 85% of cases. The other type is PPMS which is called primary progressive MS. It is basically the disease in which neurological function becomes very worst from the onset of symptoms. The term that is used to describe disease activity is active or not active. The last one called secondary progressive MS (SPMS). In this type, there are noticeable relapses of the disease and symptoms.


Sign: People that are suffering from MS experience many symptoms that can vary from person to person.  MS has early signs that anyone can neglect very easily or confuse with something else this includes blurry vision, double vision, vision loss. Patients also feel eye pain. MS patients suffer from uneven balance while walking or doing some other physical exercise, tripping easily becomes common, weak legs, numbness, and tingling that affects the arms, legs and one side of the patient’s face. These all are early signs of MS.

Some other symptoms of MS that keeps changing are:

  • Acute or chronic pain
  • Fatigue
  • Difficulty balance
  • Muscles weakness
  • Difficulty in vision
  • Difficulty in walking
  • Muscles plasticity
  • Tremor

Around 80% people that are suffering from MS report having fatigue. It usually occurs when MS deliberately affects the ability of everyday work. The other problems are with cognitive tissue involving concentration, memory, and word-finding difficulty. These all the Basic symptoms that lead to MS.

Diagnoses (2):

Doctors need to perform some tests on neurons or request some clinical history and request for some series of analysis to diagnose MS. These tests are necessary to diagnose MS and examples are MRI, OCT, VEP, Blood tests, and spinal taps.

MRI is the test that helps the doctor to detect active or inactive lesions. It is known as Magnetic resonance imaging. OCT (optical coherence tomography) is the test that takes the picture of an eye layers to access the optic nerves. Blood test is suggested by doctors to test other conditions and similar symptoms.


There is basically no cure for MS. Treatment is usually focused on spading recovery from attacks and slowing the MS symptoms. This treatment includes:

  • Corticosteroids
  • Plasma exchange
  • Physical therapy
  • Diet
  • Inters Freon beta medication
  • Muscle relaxants

Therapist suggests some physical exercise to overcome stiffness and to strengthen the muscles, a balanced diet to support recovery of MS and yoga, massage, or deep breathing.


Medicines to reduce fatigue are Gocovri, Osmolex, Ritalin, and Provigil. Muscle relaxing medicines are Lioresal, Goblafen, Zanaflex, etc. these are all oral medicines that help in overcoming the symptoms.