Introduction to COPD. COPD stands for Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease. Basically, COPD is a lung disease and it does long-term damage to the lungs and airways leading to COPD. The main and important cause of COPD is tobacco smoking. Smokers which have long smoking history often lead to COPD. They can also have other lung diseases which can lead to more chronic conditions with the passage of time and becomes COPD. But we can also say that not all smokers suffer from COPD other irritants like a cigar, air pollution, dust, smoke, pipe smoke, etc. may also cause COPD. The main cause of COPD is airway obstruction. The airway obstruction is caused by Chronic Bronchitis and Emphysema.(1)


Bronchitis is a disease of the lungs. It may be chronic or acute. Bronchioles is the site where gases like Co2 and O2 exchange during the process of respiration. Inflammation or obstruction of the bronchiole leads to the disease called bronchitis. The basic signs and symptoms of bronchitis are cough, fatigue, shortness of breath, fever, chills, and chest discomfort. It also occurs when green, white, gray, and yellowish color mucus is produced in the alveoli.


 It is also a lung disease. It occurs when the walls of alveoli found in the lungs are destroyed, which results in the loss of surface area of exchanging of O2 and Co2 during breathing. In this disease, the sacs of alveoli are damaged and with the passage of time, the sacs of alveoli become weak. This disease leads the patient to COPD. It is the most common disease with the signs and symptoms of shortness of breath, long-term cough, sneeze wheezing, fatigue, and fever.

Alpha-1 antitrypsin deficiency

Alpha-1 antitrypsin AAt is a secretion made by the lungs. It is recreated into the blood to protect the lungs. It occurs due to genetic disorders. It lowers the level of protein. Their deficiency causes many lung diseases.

Refractory asthma

This is also the cause of COPD. It is called nonreversible disease. It doesn’t respond to the normal asthma medication.


Genetics plays an important role in spreading COPD. Currently, it occurs in the body due to a deficiency of AAT. It is transferred through genes. In the family, if someone has. AAT deficiency or COPD, then you might also be at an increased risk. It is responsible only for 1-5% of cases. A number of other factors are less closely related to COPD.

Risk factors

There are many risk factors that are very responsible for COPD. They include:

  • Exposure to Tobacco Smoke.
  • People with asthma.
  • Dust
  • Air pollution.
  • Poverty
  • Exposure from burning fuels.
  • Genetic factors
  • Deficiency of AAT.

As the research shows that long-term exposure to chemical fumes, vapors, and dust in the workplace can affect the lungs badly. There are many people worldwide which are working in chemical industries or factories and are much likely to get COPD. The other main cause of COPD worldwide is smoke. If they have been smoking for many years they are much likely to have COPD.


Patients in the beginning usually don’t have any symptoms. COPD only gives symptoms when it gets worst. It gets worse day by day if the smoking continues for many years. Its symptoms include fatigue, fever cough, sneezing, stress on the chest, wheezing, shortness of breath while doing exercise and physical activities, lack of energy, weight loss, and swelling in ankles, feet’s and legs. These are the basic signs and symptoms of COPD.

People don’t experience these symptoms in the early stages but when the condition gets worse than these symptoms appear in the body. If someone experiences such type of symptoms it is important to consult the doctor as soon as possible.

The doctor may prescribe proper medication and diet plan for the disease otherwise it may lead to many other chronic diseases like heart attack, lung cancer, heart problem, depression, etc. These all diseases are very severe. As the research shows that patients with COPD might be at a high risk of lung cancer.


If you feel any of these symptoms quickly visit the doctor. He will take a physical exam and use a stethoscope to listen to the breath. There are many other tests that your doctor will ask for for the investigation of the disease. It includes spirometry to test lung function. The person will take a deep breath and then blow into a tube that has connections with a spirometer.

The other is X-ray and CT scan. They are used to see the detailed look of arteries, lungs, and heart. Blood tests play a vital role as well, it is used to measure Co2 and o2 level in blood.  After all these initial tests your doctor will advise you to change the lifestyle as well. He might advise you not to smoke and also give you a diet plan according to this.


There are basically four stages of COPD like.

  • Mild
  • Moderate
  • Severe
  • Very severe.

If the airflow is somehow limited and it can’t be noticed very much. This is called Mild. When the airflow gets worse it is called Moderate COPD. When the shortness of airflow worsens the breathing it becomes severe COPD. The last stage which is very dangerous is called very severe. It is the stage where the airflow is very limited, the breath becomes worse and the quality of life becomes very much poor.

Surgery – if your case has become too serious and needs some immediate intervention then your doctor will suggest the surgery. He will suggest Bullectomy, large volume reduction surgery, and lung transplant.

Oxygen therapy – if anyone is suffering from shortness of breath and want to enhance the quality of life they may need oxygen therapy as well.


  • Antibiotics
  • Flue or pneumonia vaccine.
  • Dalliers
  • Pulmonary
  • Nebulize
  • Diet recommendation
  • Combination inhalers.
  • Corticosteroids
  • Glucocorticosteroids

Diet recommendation – It includes some vegetables, fruits, protein, grains, dairy products, drinking plenty of fluids.