Bipolar is a mental disease that leads to mental illness and unusual shifts in mood, energy, concentration, activity and ability to carry out basic tasks throughout the day. This is also known as manic depression.

Types: – there are basically three types of Bipolar according to change in mood, activity level and energy.

  • Bipolar 1 disorder: this is very severe type in which patients need an immediate hospital treatment. The manic episodes symptoms could last for 7 days. Depressive episodes also occur in 2 weeks as well.
  • Bipolar 2 disorder: it is not very severe than bipolar, but this also have pattern of depressive episodes but not a full manic episode.
  • Cyclothymiacs: this is defined as mixture of hypo-manic symptoms and depressive symptoms for last two years.

Causes (1): – the main causes of bipolar are:

  • Genetics
  • Brain functioning
  • Environmental functions

Genetics: – as many researches show that the brain of bipolar patients is always different from the brain of non- bipolar patients. It usually has some difference. Learning these differences may help the doctors to treat the bipolar disease best. At this stage health care officials usually use patient’s symptoms or history other than taking brain imaging or tests. Many researches show that genes play a vital role in transmitting bipolar. If in patient’s family anyone have suffered from these disease, it can increase their chances of having bipolar disease as well.

Environmental factors: – these factors play a vital role in developing bipolar. Outside factors can also trigger the bipolar disorder in patients. These factors includes:-

  • Physical illness
  • High stress
  • Traumatic experience.

These factors contribute their role in this regard and are the main cause of bipolar disorder. The combinations of these factors may increase the risk of bipolar disorders.

Diagnosis: – people who are suffering from this disease have to visit their doctor to make their life more healthy and meaningful. In the appointments, doctor could ask some questions related to the condition and after this they will decide which treatment is best for the patient. During the assessment, doctor could ask about the symptoms which you have been suffering from. Then the doctor could also ask about the thoughts you are having during depression phases. They could ask about the depression and mania.

Physical test: – doctor will suggest some physical test to assure that there is no other cause of showing depression symptoms.

Daily chart: –.doctor will ask to maintain the daily chart of your routine like mood, sleep, activities etc. it will help them to diagnose the bipolar disorder.

Symptoms / signs: –there are many symptoms of bipolar.  Mania and hypomania it usually have the same symptoms. There are two different kinds but symptoms are same. They are quite noticeable at work, school and basically in social activities. These includes:-

  • Aggression towards anything
  • Exaggerated sense of rudeness and self being
  • Unusual talking habits
  • Decreased need of sleep
  • Racing thoughts
  • Distract ability
  • Poor decision making
  • Euphoria

Major depressive episode symptoms are quite severe and noticeable. It can have a great effect on daily routine. These symptoms includes:-

  • Depressed mood: – like hopeless, sad, empty. This appears more in children and teenager.
  • Loss of interest: – in any activity.
  • Insomnia
  • Sleeping too much
  • Weight loss
  • Fatigue
  • Feeling worthless

Thinking or planning about suicide decreases ability of thinking or concentrating. These symptoms are very hard to find in teenagers or children because it is hard to distinguish whether they are suffering from mental illness or not.

Treatment: – treatment should be decided by specialist doctors who are specialized in their profession like psychiatrics who know about mental health and their disorders very well. As the research shows that bipolar is a lifelong disease and should be treated according to the symptoms or their diagnosis. These treatments includes:-

  • Medication
  • Continued treatment
  • Day treatment
  • Hospitalization

Continued treatment: –as we know bipolar is a lifelong disease and it requires regular treatment. Doctor’s appointments should be continued in that time even when patient feels normal because later on it can cause high depression in patient.

Day treatment:doctor will also suggest that day treatment program to overcome stress in patients it requires counseling, then the symptoms will be under control.

 Hospitalisation: –doctor will also suggest hospitalisation if patient is behaving strangely and dangerous like committing suicide. In the observation of doctor or psychiatric the mood of the patient is being calmed.

Medication: –doctors will suggest medical treatment also to overcome depression and anxiety. This includes:-

  • Mood stabiliser
  • Antipsychotic’s
  • Antidepressants
  • Antidepressant and antipsychotic’s
  • Antianxiety

Mood stabilizer: –doctors will highly recommend mood stabiliser to control mood swings and depression. Examples of mood stabiliser are: Lithopid, Depakene, Depakote, Tegretol, Equitro, and Lamictal.

Antipsychotic’s: –these drugs basically include: Zyprexa, Risperdal, Seroquel, Abilify, Geodon, Latuda, and Spheris. Doctors will refer these medicines along with the mood stabilizer.

Antianxiety medicine: –doctors will also suggest that antianxiety medicine to overcome stress, depression and anxiety it includes Benzodiazepine’s. It will be used for the short term but it will be really helpful for controlling the anxiety.

Medication and pregnancy: –a number of medicines can affect the birth of a baby. They can cause birth defects and also can pass through from the breast milk to the baby. There are some medicines that cannot be used during pregnancy. Birth control medicines can lose their effectiveness during bipolar medical treatment.

Psychotherapy: –it plays a vital role in treating bipolar disorder. It can provide individual or family setting. This includes:

  • CBT
  • Psycho-education
  • Family focused therapy

It will help in connecting with family to handle mood swings of the patients and help in maintaining medicines. The loved ones in the family can help in medication and aware of the mood swing and anxiety.

Treatment in teenagers and children (2): –the treatment of the teenagers and children depen d upon the cases based on their symptoms, medication side effects and other factors. The medication provided to the teen or children are same as the adult according to the symptoms and side effects. Family support and counselling is more important in this age group. It will help them in being focused and make them encouraged to lead a normal life.