Lung cancer is the most dangerous disease worldwide. It can happen in any part of the lung but more likely it happens in the epithelial cell and the chances are (90% – 95%). As we know body controls the cell growth and maintains the system. But when the cell grows abnormally and forms a mass structure this is called Tumor. This tumor may be malignant or benign. Malignant tumor is called cancer. When the tumor cells spread via the bloodstream to other parts of the body then it is called metastasis. These are some main causes of lung cancer.
- Family history
- Passive smoking
- Air pollution
- Radiation therapy
- Exposure to gas
Smoking(1): – Doctors think that the main cause of lung cancer is smoking. Cigarette contains 1000 carcinogens in the smoke which are responsible for damaging the walls of lungs. When we inhale the smoke it damages the walls of the airways. Long-term smoking might be responsible for causing cancer in lung tissue. As we smoke the very first time the cells will be able to repair the damage, but repeated smoke will cause heavy damage to the walls of the lungs. With the passage of time damage increases rapidly and causes the cell to grow abnormally that may cause severe damage to the lungs. Even if we don’t smoke but we are at the risk of lung cancer because of passive smoking. If we don’t smoke but inhale it might also damage the airways of the lungs that can cause cancer.
Air pollution: – It is another cause of lung cancer. Dust particles or smoke in the air carry harmful chemicals or carcinogens which damage the walls of lungs very often. The workers who work in industries and live in polluted regions are more likely to get lung cancer.
Genetics: – Genetics is also the main cause of lung cancer. If we have a family history of lung cancer like if someone in your family has suffered from lung cancer then you are more likely to develop lung cancer.
Radiation therapy: – If a person undergoes radiation therapy for the chest, brain for treating other cancers they are more likely to get lung cancer.
Types: – These are basically two types of lung cancer that are.
- Small cell lung cancer.
- Non small lung cancer.
Small cell lung cancer: – It is less common than non-small lung cancer. It usually happens in people who smoke heavily. As the doctors say that smoking is the major cause of lung cancer worldwide, therefore, small cell lung cancer happens in smokers.
Nonsmall lung cancer: – It is very severe cancer than other cancers. We can say that this is the umbrella term for several cancers because this cancer usually includes squamous cell carcinoma, adenocarcinoma and large cells.
Symptoms/signs: – Lung cancer is called a silent attacker it usually doesn’t have any symptoms it only get symptoms when it is being spread to other parts of the body. Some people at early stages of lung cancer don’t have any symptoms but with the passage of time, they can become adverse.
- Weight loss.
- Difficulty in breathing.
- Loss of appetite.
- Bone pain.
- Changes skin color.
These are the most common symptoms of lung cancer. When a person has a cough that won’t go away and becomes worse day by day, sometimes with blood or sputum, then it is a clear sign of lung disease. The color of the body becomes yellowish, Hoarseness in the voice, unexplained loss of weight, infection in bronchi that won’t go away, hip pains, back pain, bone pain, drooping or weakness of one upper eyelid, dark part at the center of the eye are all the symptoms of the lung cancer.
Treatments (2): – Treatment for lung cancer is usually chemotherapy or radiation therapy. Targeted therapy is becoming more common as well. With the passage of time doctors will prescribe the treatment according to the stage of cancer in the body. It depends on the stage of the tumor and the location of the tumor in the body, it also depends on the overall health of the patient and diet. Doctors will also prescribe curative or palliative therapies to reduce the pain and suffering due to other therapies. These therapies are usually used for removal of tumor or to kill the tumor cell in the body.
Radiation: – It treats both NSCLC, SCLC. In these therapies, high-energy X-rays are used to kill the cancer cells at the given part of the body. Professionals give the high radiation externally to the cancer part of the body.
Brachytherapy is another treatment of cancer cells in the lungs. In this therapy radioactive material is placed directly in cancer or in the next airway to cancer.
If the digestive organs of patients are being exposed to the radiation to some extent then the patient will suffer from the nausea, vomiting. It also irritates the skin but it has the ability to improve after the therapy. Side effects of the therapy are weight loss, hair loss, nausea and vomiting, and mouth sores. Some patients will have to suffer from adverse effects too. However, these effects might subside soon.
Surgery: – Doctor will also recommend surgery if cancer cells is limited in a specific part of the lungs. About 10% – 35% of lung cancers are removed by surgery. It will only happen when cancer is not spreading in the other parts of the body. The surgeries are more likely to depend upon the size and location of the tumor in the body. Complication includes bleeding, infection, anesthesia, and post-surgery problems.
Rate of survivals for lung cancer are lower than other cancers, it is about 17% unlike in other cancers like colon cancer 65% breast cancer 91% bladder is 81%.
- Stop smoking.
- Avoid carcinogens.
- Eat a good diet.
- Exercise regularly.
- Consult doctors regularly.
Eating vegetables, fruits, or in a general healthy diet, fresh juices might help in the prevention of lung cancer. Try to use face mask if you are working in any industries, factories or polluted region. Exercising regularly might also be good for treating lung cancer.